National policy on biodiversity and national program on biological diversity

Looking to implement the obligations assumed at the Convention of Biodiversity (CBD), the Federal Government instituted, in 1994, the National Program on Biodiversity (PRONABIO)1 and created a coordinating commission for the Program (CONABIO), with the aim of coordinating, accompanying, and evaluating their actions, which, however, was only instituted eight years later2, in the same act that repealed Decree No. 1.354/94.

The National Policy on Biodiversity was created through Decree No. 4.339/20023 and its principles derive, basically, from those established at the Convention on Biological Diversity and in the Rio Declaration, both in 1992, with the general goal the promotion, in its entirety, of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of its components, with equal and fair repartition of the benefits derived from the use of genetic resources, of components of genetic heritage, and of traditional knowledge associated with these resources.

The implementation of the Policy fell to the Ministry of the Environment (MMA), which, through intermediation of PRONABIO, is expected to coordinate the implementation of the principles and directives of Agenda 21, by means of the promotion of the partnership between the Public Sector and civil society, striving for the decentralization of the execution of the actions and seeking to ensure the participation of the interested sectors.

CONABIO is composed of 20 representatives of governmental organs and civil society organizations and has a relevant role in the discussion and implementation of the policies on biodiversity. The Commission will be responsible for implementing the commitments assumed by Brazil with the CBD, as well as identifying and proposing priority areas and actions for research, conservation, and sustainable use of the components of biodiversity.4


  1. Brazil, 1994. Decree No. 1354 of 29 December 1994. Establishes, within the scope of the Ministry of the Environment and the Brazilian Legal Amazon, the National Biological Diversity Program, and makes other provisions. Available here.
  2. Brazil, 2003. Decree No. 4703 of 21 May 2003. Legislates on the National Biological Diversity Program – PRONABIO (Portuguese acronym), and makes other provisions. Available here.
  3. Brazil, 2002. Decree No. 4339 of 22 August 2002. Establishes principles and directives to the implementation of the National Policy on Biodiversity. Available here.
  4. The Ministry of the Environment – National Policy on Biodiversity. Access on November 2015. Available here.